investigation of the ultrastructure, calcification and life cycle of Coccolithus pelagicus by Jeremy D. Rowson

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Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of Birmingham, Dept of Plant Biology.

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StatementJeremy D. Rowson.
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Download investigation of the ultrastructure, calcification and life cycle of Coccolithus pelagicus

The ultrastructure and life cycle of the coastal coccolithophorid Ochrosphaera neapolitana (Prymnesiophyceae) February European Journal of Phycology 40(1) Using a similar range of cell division rates to those observed in C.

pelagicus and Emiliania huxleyi culture and field experiments11 (– and 0– divisions per day for exponential and stationary phase, respectively; see Methods section), we conservatively estimate that for Coccolithus, the observed shift to early stationary phase cell Cited by:   Coccolithus genus: The two main species included in this subgroup, C.

pelagicus and C. braarudii, are larger than E. huxleyi with relatively slow maximum growth rates. Members of the Coccolithus genus are moderately calcified and have been observed in polar and temperate waters of the Northern Hemisphere (Daniels et al., ).

(7)Cited by: Calcification patterns of the coccolithophore Coccolithus braarudii (Haptophyta), from the late Quaternary to present in the Southern Ocean. Joana Carolina Cubillos. BSc. Hons., University of Tasmania.

Submitted in fulfilment of the. requirements for the degree of. Doctor. Philosophy. University of Tasmania. June,   Species concept. Although Coccolithus pelagicus is recorded in fossil material since the Paleocene, this long fossil record is based on a very broad species concept (Geisen et al., ).

Geisen et al. () proposed that at the present day this genus consists of two extant subspecies: C. pelagicus ssp. pelagicus (Wallich, ) Schiller, and C. pelagicus ssp. Cited by: C. pelagicus Frequency: Size-normalized C L (μm) thickness (to 4 μm) Size-normalized thickness (to 6 μm) 12 14 16 18 Ø (μm) Coccospheres exhibiting slowed division (%) C.

pel. coccospheres rare Coccosphere calcite quota (pg calcite) Coccosphere 0 Toweius:Coccolithus 16 C L (μm) Ø (μm) T.

One aspect of calcification likely includes a large flux of Ca 2+ into coccolith deposition vesicles, where calcification occurs. von Dassow et al. () found five gene clusters with homology to vacuolar-type Ca 2+ /H + antiporters. Of those, expression of one appeared to be specific to the calcified phase of the life cycle.

Parke M Adams I () The motile (Crystallolithus hyalinus (Gaarder & Markali) and non-motile phases in the life-history of Coccolithus pelagicus (Wallich) Schiller. J Mar Biol Assoc UK – CrossRef Google Scholar.

The diversity of calcified structures found in protists, the mechanisms utilized to form these structures, and the role these structures play in the taxonomy and systematics of the protists are presented.

The two most frequently studied orders of protists which produce calcified structures, the coccolithophorids and foraminifera, are featured. However, consideration is given to the less known. The open waters of the Arctic host Coccolithus pelagicus, Calciopappus caudatus, Algirosphaera robusta, and Emiliania huxleyi (Winter et al.

), and several representatives from the. The formation and secretion of heterococcoliths by the non-motile life phase of the coccolithophore Coccolithus pelagicus was investigated using electron microscopy and time-lapse bright field.

) and hence relatively low calcification rates; other larger and more heavily calcified species such as Coccolithus pelagicus, with ~30 times more calcite per cell than E. huxleyi (Daniels et al. ), have the potential to be key species in terms of upper ocean.

Coccolithus braarudii (PLYg) (formerly Coccolithus pelagicus ssp. braarudii) and E. huxleyi (CCMP This finding suggests that the maintenance of the coccosphere in the diploid life cycle stage is a requirement for growth in it is interesting that these species exhibit a lower requirement for calcification in both life cycle stages.

A morphometric study of Coccolithus pelagicus s. coccoliths was performed on 98 samples from a long sediment core recovered off the Portuguese margin (MD) and 29 more surface samples.

Changing coccolith thickness may affect calcite production more significantly in the dominant modern species Emiliania huxleyi, but, overall, these PETM records indicate that the environmental factors that govern taxonomic composition and growth rate will most strongly influence coccolithophore calcification response to anthropogenic change.

CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): (Haptophyta) life cycles: flow cytometric analysis of relative ploidy levels Abstract Several coccolithophore species are known to exhibit heteromorphic life cycles.

In certain species, notably Emiliania huxleyi, the heterococcolithbearing phase alternates with a non-calcifying stage, whereas in others the. Click on the article title to read more. Rates of growth of Coccolithus huxleyi were determined at 7, 12, 18, 24, and 27C and found to be highest at 18 and 24C.

The mean minimum doubling time was about 19 hr. The Q 10 of growth rates for the interval 7–18C was The Q 10 value was in medium lacking Na 2 CO percentage of cells forming coccoliths was twofold to threefold greater at 18 and 24C than at 7 and 27C.

1. Introduction. Biomineralization in coccolithophores has been reviewed in several recent publications. Paasche's () comprehensive review of Emiliania huxleyi includes a discussion of coccolith formation in both Emiliania and Pleurochrysis s by Marsh () and González () emphasize the roles of acidic polysaccharides and ion transport, respectively, in coccolith.

The requirement for calcification differs between ecologically important coccolithophore species Charlotte E. Walker1,2, Alison R. Taylor3, Gerald Langer1, Grazyna M. Durak_ 1, Sarah Heath1, Ian Probert4, Toby Tyrrell2, Colin Brownlee1,2 and Glen L.

Wheeler1 1Marine Biological Association, Plymouth, PL1 2PB, UK; 2School of Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton. apparently undergoing calcification are always closely associated with the envelope.

The calcite crystals of crystalloliths appear to be covered by a thin layer of organic material which may act as a matrix during calcium carbonate deposition.

Coccolithus pelagicus (Wallich) J. Schiller. The presence of flagellar bases in Coccolithus pelagicus is also demonstrated in spite of the fact that the cells of this phase of the life-history are non-motile.

Microalgal calcification is predominantly marine and cyanobacteria were likely the first life forms to mediate the biological production of calcite at the cell surface. Of the eukaryotes, coccolithophores represent the most significant group of calcifying microalgae, playing a critical role in the marine carbonate system.

Through the production and export of their calcite coccoliths, coccolithophores form a key component of the global carbon cycle. Despite this key role, very little is known about the biogeochemical role of different coccolithophore species in terms of calcite production, and how these species will respond to future climate change and ocean acidification.

The motile (Crystallolithus hyalinus Gaarder and Markali) and non-motilee phases in the life history of Coccolithus pelagicus (Wallich) Schiller J.

Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K., 39 (), p. Euphotic layer‐integrated calcification and mean cell‐specific calcification in the euphotic layer ranged between 2–10 mgC m −2 d −1 and 5–20 pgC cell −1 d −1, respectively.

We found a significant relationship between primary production and calcification, such that the calcification to primary production (CP/PP) ratio was.

Despite the oceanographic and geological significance of coccolithophores, the cellular mechanisms that underlie the intracellular production and subsequent secretion of their CaCO3 coccoliths remain poorly understood.

Tools for labeling coccoliths and coccospheres in order to track their production would be of great value. We therefore evaluated the use of calcein, a derivative of fluorescein. CALCIFICATION, AND COCCOLITH FORM IN COCCOLITHUS HUXLEY1 (COCCOLITHINEAE) Norirnitsu Watabe and Karl M.

Wilbur Department of Zoology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina ABSTRACT Rates of growth of Coccolithus huxleyi were determined at 7, 12, 18, 24, and 27C and found to be highest at 18 and 24C. An international research team has calculated the costs and benefits of calcification for phytoplankton and the impact of climate change on their important role in the world's oceans.

(Gephyrocapsa oceanica) and large (Coccolithus pelagicus dii) coccoliths at higher culture CO 2(aq).Datafrom Rickaby et al. [], where low CO 2 is 10–15 mmol/kg and high CO 2 is 60 mmol/kg.

We note that in DIC experiments, consequences on coccolith d18O and d13C may not be identi-cal to those expected in the paleo-ocean because. For some time now, the ongoing rise in the atmosphere's CO2 concentration has been claimed to be raising havoc - or just about to be doing so - with earth's calcifying marine organisms by lowering the calcium carbonate saturation state of seawater, which phenomenon has been predicted to greatly hamper the abilities of these creatures to produce their calcium carbonate skeletons (Orr et al.

Parke M, Adams I () The motile (Crystallolithus hyalinus Gaarder & Markali) and non-motile phases in the life history of Coccolithus pelagicus (Wallich) Schiller. Fresnel J, Probert I (in press) The ultrastructure and life cycle of the coastal coccolithophorid Ochrosphaera neapolitana (Prymnesiophyceae).

Eur J Phycol Google Scholar Fujiwara S, Tsuziki M, Kawachi M, Minaka N, Inouye I () Molecular phylogeny of the Haptophyta based on the rbc L gene and sequence variation in the spacer region of the.

Calcifying marine phytoplankton—coccolithophores— are some of the most successful yet enigmatic organisms in the ocean and are at risk from global change. To better understand how they will be affected, we need to know “why” coccolithophores calcify.

We review coccolithophorid evolutionary history and cell biology as well as insights from recent experiments to provide a critical. To determine whether the requirement for calcification differs between coccolithophore species, we utilized multiple independent methodologies to disrupt calcification in two important species of coccolithophore: E.

huxleyi and Coccolithus braarudii. We investigated their physiological response and used time‐lapse imaging to visualize the. CryoSXT images of vitrified P. carterae cells producing coccoliths. (A) Raw X-ray image of the cell at 0° tilt and eV.(Inset) A light microscopy image of a living cell with a coccolith shell.(B) A slice in the 3D reconstructed volume of the cell showing the chloroplasts (green arrowheads), a large membrane-bound compartment (*), several vesicles, and X-ray−absorbing bodies (dark).

Coccolithophores are abundant unicellular marine algae that produce calcified scales via a controlled intracellular process. Understanding the cellular controls over the calcification process is a pressing need to predict the influence of changing oceanic conditions on these major contributors to global marine calcification and carbon fluxes.

Using several microalgae, and a combination of. Calcification occurs when calcium builds up in areas of body tissue where calcium normally doesn’t exist.

Find out how it can disrupt your body’s normal processes. The biomineralized phytoplankton are major contributors to marine primary productivity and play a major role in carbon export to the deep oceans by promoting the sinking of organic material from the photic zone 1, two primary forms of biomineralization found in marine plankton are the precipitation of silica (by diatoms, chrysophytes, synurophytes, dictyochophytes, choanoflagellates and.

One hypothesis is that, under high ΣCO 2 culture conditions with constant pH (therefore high [CO 3 2−] and [HCO 3 −] but constant HCO 3 −:CO 3 2− ratio), the large species Coccolithus pelagicus ssp.

braarudii utilizes more HCO 3 − relative to CO 3 2− for calcification compared to under low ΣCO 2, potentially via manipulation of. Coccolithophores are unicellular marine phytoplankton, which produce intricate, tightly regulated, exoskeleton calcite structures.

The formation of biogenic calcite occurs either intracellularly, forming ‘wheel-like’ calcite plates, or extracellularly, forming ‘tiled-like’ plates known as coccoliths.

Secreted coccoliths then self-assemble into multiple layers to form the coccosphere.THE PRESENCE of calcification in soft tissues and its radiological appearance may aid in the diagnosis and treatment of certain systemic disorders.

When the soft-tissue calcification occurs with an elevated serum calcium-phosphorus ion product, it is termed metastatic calcification. In these.Phytoplankton in the Oslo Fjord during a” Coccolithus huxleyi-summer”. Dybwad in Komm. Boney, A. D. (). Scale-bearing phytoflagellates: an interim graphy and marine biology annual review, 8, Borowitzka, M.

A. (). Morphological and .

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